Superior solar cell efficiency

DuPont’s Solamet? has done more to
increase solar cell efficiencies and power output
than any other provider worldwide, no one else even comes close.

Efficiency Matters

? In?the last????



We’ve introduced


new products

And yielded


higher cell efficiencies

A Brighter Future

Solamet? metallization pastes transformed thousands of homes in an isolated area of India.? Villagers previously lacked safe, clean, dependable electricity, but our solar solutions provided energy that’s safer, more reliable, more efficient, and cost effective.


Efficiency for widespread accessibility

The advancements in Solamet? have helped to increase the power output of solar panels by 30%. This means more reliable power with fewer panels and materials and less space. More power with fewer resources means lower overall cost and faster adoption of solar energy worldwide.

Even small efficiency gains can lead to lower overall costs of a PV system over time. Every 1% improvement in sunlight conversion efficiency could result in a 5% reduction in the cost of the overall solar power generation system.

Versatility for very specific needs

We’ve been on the cutting edge of solar cell efficiency for a long time. We were the first to offer:

·???????? Co-fire metallizations

·???????? Frontside chemistry

·???????? Enable LDE technology

Our solar solutions are simple, cost-effective, and offer higher cell efficiency (double-digit) and greater power output at any scale.

Solamet? photovoltaic metallization pastes have enabled sustainable development of China’s solar energy industry and have brought reliable electricity to rural areas.

Endurance for long-term reliability

With Solamet? metallization pastes, your solar cells will generate more reliable, efficient, safe, and robust power for 25+ years.

Solamet? Metallization Paste Selector Guide


Our guide makes it easy to select the right solar cell materials.


DuPont? Solamet? photovoltaic (PV) metallization pastes are advanced solar cell materials that deliver significantly higher efficiency and greater power output for solar panels.


When screen printed onto the surface of solar cells, metallization pastes collect the electricity produced by the cells and transport it out.


DuPont has introduced more than 110 new Solamet? PV metallization paste formulations over the last ten years, and continues to develop new Solamet? pastes to boost solar cell efficiencies even more.


We invite you to explore our DuPont? Solamet? PV Metallization Paste Selector Guide and find the Solamet? pastes that are best suited for your application.


Photovoltaic metallization pastes are screen printed onto the surface of solar cells in a pattern of grid lines which serve to collect electricity produced by the cell and transport it out. Single print, which refers to the printing of a single layer of silver paste on the front side of a solar cell as a conductor, is the most common screen printing technology. From Solamet? PV145 paste to the latest generation of Solamet? PV21x paste available today, Solamet? photovoltaic metallization pastes continue to set the standard for solar cell efficiency.

To maximize the efficiency of a solar cell, double (or multiple) printing technology reduces the shadowing effect of wide grid lines and improves electrical conductivity. In addition to demanding precise alignment of the patterning system, multiple printing requires the paste to be finely tuned to perform consistently during all printing passes.

Passivated Emitter Rear Cell (PERC) is a solar cell structure on p-type crystalline silicon wafers that forms the rear localized aluminum-alloyed contact structures, which reduces the effective rear surface recombination velocity (SRV) by forming localized back surface field (LBSF) regions through patterned dielectrics. PERC structures can enable higher cell efficiencies than cells employing a full area aluminum-alloyed BSF.

Metal Wrap Through (MWT) is a specialized cell structure that transfers the bus bars on the front side of the solar cell onto the backside, reducing shading on the front side of the cell. The connections are made through holes in the silicon with the same composition as the bus bars.

N-type solar cells are based on n-type silicon wafers which are produced differently in the doping process during crystallization: while for p-type silicon usually employs boron as a dopant, n-type silicon crystals, usually phosphorus is added to the silicon melt. N-type solar cells feature two important advantages: they do not suffer from light induced degradation (LID) and they are less sensitive to impurities that are usually present in silicon feedstock.

Interdigitated back contact solar (IBC) cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. Rear contact solar cells eliminate shading losses altogether by putting both contacts on the rear of the cell. Cells with both contacts on the rear are easier to interconnect and can be placed closer together in the module since there is no need for a space between the cells.

Front Side Silver
Solamet? PV21x delivers better contact performance and high aspect ratios that enable cell efficiency enhancement >0.1% and maintains high throughput in mass production.
The current industry benchmark
The newest family of high efficiency front side silver pastes
Rear Side Tabbing Silver
A highly conductive solderable silver composition providing lower consumption with excellent adhesion
With unique chemistry delivering higher cell performance and reliability
Front Side Silver
Solamet? PVD1x and PVD2x makes up an integrated two-layer solution with excellent compatibility to maximize cell performance. This leading solution for double printing enables more than 0.1% efficiency gain.
The 1st generation silver paste designed for multiple printing as the 2nd layer of grid lines
Designed for multiple printing and to enable narrower and taller grid lines to be precisely printed in two or more layers
Rear Side Tabbing Silver
A highly conductive solderable silver composition providing lower consumption with excellent adhesion
With unique chemistry delivering higher cell performance and reliability
Front Side Silver
Solamet? PV21A delivers better contact performance and high aspect ratios that can drive cell efficiency enhancement 0.1%.
A new series of front side silver pastes designed for PERC technology at lower firing temperatures
Rear Side Tabbing Silver
Reduces rear passivation damage while maintaining excellent adhesion to passivation layer
A back surface conductor compatible with the i-PERC process for Local Back Surface Field (LBSF) designs
Front Side Connecting Silver
A via paste and p-contact metallization for back side tabbing interconnects
The newest series of Metal Wrap Through (MWT) technology for high efficiency rear side interconnects
A highly conductive solderable silver composition providing lower consumption with excellent adhesion
Delivers higher cell performance and reliability
Silver/Aluminum Pastes
First generation of silver/aluminum paste for n-type cells
Advanced silver/aluminum paste to provide 30-40% better contact resistivity on b-doped emitters
New generation silver/aluminum high-efficiency paste for n-type cells
Designed for multiple printing and to enable narrower and taller grid lines to be precisely printed in two or more layers
Contacting Silver Pastes Inks
Solamet? PVM1X has excellent matchability with various MCF parameters, outstanding printability, and yield to both multi and mono wafers with 0.1% efficiency gain.
Designed for both p-type and n-type with a single screen printing process
Can be customized upon request

What makes up a solar panel?

An interactive guide

Photo:  TSEC V Series Launch

“DuPont continues to deliver technology advancements that enable module manufacturers to improve their product offerings. We have come to count on the ability of DuPont to constantly push the boundaries of photovoltaic materials that enable solar products to be more efficient, reliable and offer a higher return on investment.”?

-? C.J. Hung, president of Taiwan Solar Energy Company

Peter Dorhout, ACS

“DuPont? Solamet? technology plays a central role in making solar panels more powerful and more cost-effective. The technology is fostering a fast-growing industry that is creating jobs while enabling sustainable living for humankind. This is a strong example of chemistry having a direct, positive impact on society, which is why these inventors are clearly ‘Heroes of Chemistry.’”?

- Peter Dorhout, ACS President